Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Trachichthyiformes
(Roughies) > Trachichthyidae
Etymology: Hoplostethus: Greek, hoplon = weapon + Greek, stetho, stethion = brest; literal = to prick a little breast (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 70 - 1000 m (Ref. 9869), usually 200 - 700 m (Ref. 36731). Deep-water; 28°N - 27°S
Eastern Atlantic: along the coast of northwest Africa between 27°30'N to 10°10'N and 1°26'S to 26'14°S. Reported from Cape Verde (Ref. 27000). Western Indian Ocean: off Transkei, South Africa (Ref. 4181).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3583)
Lives near the bottom in deep water, from 200 to at least 500, but possibly to 1000 m depth. Feeds on crustaceans (Ref. 3695).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maul, G.E., 1990. Trachichthyidae. p. 620-622. In J.C. Quéro, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3583)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.3 - 15.4, mean 11.1 °C (based on 155 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00727 - 0.03790), b=3.05 (2.85 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .