Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Cynoglossinae
Etymology: Cynoglossus: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 25°N - 9°S, 61°E - 133°E
Indo-West Pacific: Malay Archipelago to Philippines, and westward to Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India (West Bengal) to Pakistan (Ref. 9895).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9895); common length : 12.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9895)
soft rays: 72 - 78. Dorsolateral line usually undulating. No dark blotches or irregular cross bands on body. Eyed-side lower jaw with crenulate fleshy ridge comprised of several folds, or jaw with a single broadly triangular-shaped fleshy ridge (Ref 9895).
Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms, often in shallow areas, including river estuaries and brackish waters. Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 12693). Marketed mostly fresh and frozen; also dried-salted (Ref. 9895).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Menon, A.G.K. and S. Monkolprasit, 1974. Cynoglossidae. In W. Fischer and P.J.P. Whitehead (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean (fishing area 57) and Western Central Pacific (fishing area 71). Rome, FAO. Vol. II, pag. var. (Ref. 2107)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.2 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 970 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00483 - 0.02731), b=2.99 (2.77 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .