Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 668 m (Ref. 51661). Temperate; 61°N - 36°N
Northern Atlantic: St. Lawrence River estuary, east of Newfoundland and off Halifax, Nova Scotia to Virginia, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12204)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Females are mature at 5.4 cm TL (Ref. 12204).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Coad, B.W., 1995. Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions Inc. Singapore. (Ref. 12204)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.5 - 7.6, mean 4 °C (based on 194 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00194 - 0.00940), b=3.19 (3.01 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=10-20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .