Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335). More on author: McClelland.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (south to Bazaruto Island, Mozambique, Ref. 33390) to the Hawaiian, Tuamoto, and Marquesan islands, north to the Ryukyus, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602)
Found in clear waters of lagoons and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans, mainly at night. Nervous and aggressive (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen, 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 670 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00035 (0.00024 - 0.00053), b=3.31 (3.19 - 3.43), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.69 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.7 [23.8, 94.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.528 [0.316, 1.010] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.2, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.251 [0.101, 0.714] g/100g ; Selenium = 45.2 [20.3, 100.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 86.7 [19.9, 337.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.27 [0.81, 1.95] mg/100g (wet weight);