Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Echidna: Greek, echidna = viper, 1847 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 48 m (Ref. 58302), usually ? - 10 m (Ref. 30404). Tropical; 32°N - 33°S, 27°E - 76°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 33390) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964) to the Society Islands, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to Lord Howe Island; throughout Micronesia. Eastern Central Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico and from Costa Rica to northern Colombia (Ref. 9324). Also found in Southeast Atlantic.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3258)
Found between rocks and corals of intertidal reef flats, also in shallow lagoon and seaward reefs to depths of at least 10 m (Ref. 9710, 58302). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Nocturnal (Ref. 68964). Feed mainly on crustaceans. Protogynous hermaphroditism unconfirmed for this species (Ref. 84746). Safely kept with small aquarium fishes (Ref. 9710). Solitary, seen usually in the open or with only head exposed (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Protogyny unconfirmed (Ref. 84746).
Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen, 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3674 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00034 (0.00022 - 0.00052), b=3.32 (3.20 - 3.44), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 32.9 [18.8, 57.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.389 [0.219, 0.652] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [17.5, 22.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.122 [0.056, 0.318] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.9 [28.2, 95.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 62 [18, 199] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.911 [0.632, 1.268] mg/100g (wet weight);