Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 15 - 30 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 15°N - 10°S, 91°E - 128°E
Western Central Pacific: Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Viet Nam, Indonesia and Philippines. Confused with Hippocampus kuda. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.7 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 52034)
Length type refers to Height (= from top of coronet to the tip of straightened tail). This species is mainly found in pairs (Ref. 48635) on coral reefs, sponge gardens, kelp, and floating Sargassum. Nocturnal, site faithful. Feeds on zooplankton (Ref. 85309). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Life span probably more than 2-3 years. Used for traditional Chinese medicine (Ref. 85309).
Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and genetic (Ref. 52884). Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205). Gestation period 2-3 weeks (but varies with water temperature) (Ref. 30915).
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.3 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 688 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00176 - 0.01132), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 0.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=0.5-1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 122 [66, 237] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.1 [0.7, 1.7] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.2, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.13 [0.08, 0.23] g/100g ; Selenium = 41.4 [19.7, 81.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 58.9 [20.9, 168.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.42 [0.96, 2.09] mg/100g (wet weight);