Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - ? m. Subtropical
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and throughout the Gulf of Mexico to Yucatán, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 118196)
Found inshore, over sandy, vegetated areas (Ref. 27549). Schooling species (Ref. 27549). Feeds on algae and small organisms (Ref. 27549). Used as baitfish where abundant (Ref. 27549). Caught with dip nets (Ref. 27549).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Murdy, E.O., R.S. Birdsong and J.A. Musick, 1997. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Smithsonian Institution Press Washington and London. 324 p. (Ref. 27549)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.9 - 28, mean 26.7 °C (based on 496 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .