Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Hippichthys: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal. Tropical; 29°N - 12°S
Africa, Asia and Oceania: South Africa and Kenya to the Solomon Islands and in some Philippine lakes.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 8 - 8 cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5316)
(total): 22-30. Preserved color dusky greenish gray; underside of head whitish; ventral keel and caudal fin blackish. Body: trunk heptagonal; very long tail 4-sided; covered with finely-sculptured plates with fine ridges; knife-like keel on the belly made up of sculptured plates. Head conical posteriorly; large elongate snout very narrow with concave plates; operculum with prominent median longitudinal keel; nape with a median crest. Dorsal fin only at the first 6 rings of tail; pectoral and caudal fins small.
Common in the lower reaches of rivers and streams, and in estuarine habitats. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205, 44894). Occurs in mangrove estuaries and tidal creeks (Ref. 44894). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Male matures at 7.5-8.0 cm SL.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Female deposits eggs on the ventral surface of the male's trunk or tail, where they are incubated for several weeks (Ref. 2847).
Dawson, C.E., 1985. Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00045 (0.00019 - 0.00102), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .