Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 100 m (Ref. 42788). Temperate; 17°S - 47°S
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand. Eastern Central Pacific: Tonga and Tahiti.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 42788)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 0 - 4;
soft rays: 15 - 19. Head and anterior body depressed. Body scales minute, randomly arranged. Pectoral fins with "squarish" appearance, dorsoposterior margin straight, middle ray longest. A mental barbel present on chin. Respiratory valve inside lower jaw with a dermal appendage expanded vertically in young, without appendage in adults. Both lips with labial fimbriae. Lower portion of body without dermal folds originating from anal fin rays (Ref 42788).
Ranging from estuaries to the continental shelf (Ref. 42788). Feeds on demersal fishes (Ref. 42788). Minimum depth range from Ref. 121942.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paulin, C., A. Stewart, C. Roberts and P. McMillan, 1989. New Zealand fish: a complete guide. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series No. 19. 279 p. (Ref. 5755)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 12 - 20.6, mean 16.6 °C (based on 64 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00174 - 0.01147), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).