Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Tropical
Western Atlantic: Belize to Santa Catarina, Brazil; also Trinidad, Jamaica, St. Barthélemy, and Suriname.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 80009); max. published weight: 90.20 g (Ref. 118626)
Common in estuarine areas (Ref. 36453).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Greenfield, D.W. and J.E. Thomerson, 1997. Fishes of the continental waters of Belize. University Press of Florida, Florida. 311 p. (Ref. 30499)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.7 - 28, mean 27.3 °C (based on 238 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00815 - 0.01409), b=3.10 (3.04 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).