Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 700 m (Ref. 50593), usually ? - 91 m (Ref. 2850). Temperate; 67°N - 35°N, 130°E - 125°W (Ref. 54599)
North Pacific: Korea and the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, and Barkley Sound, Canada. Reported from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea (Ref. 28503).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.2, range 21 - 32 cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56370); common length : 33.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4883); max. published weight: 1.7 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 34 years (Ref. 55701)
Adults feed on hydroids, worms, mollusks, and brittle stars (Ref. 6885). Marketed frozen and eaten fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Each individual spawns from 8 to 11 batches (Ref. 39301). Spawning occurs primarily in shallow water but for large females spawning may take place in waters to a depth of around 50 m (Ref. 119537). Undergoes spawning and feeding migration (Ref. 119537).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.2 - 6.1, mean 3.4 °C (based on 33 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00694 - 0.00909), b=3.09 (3.05 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.8 (6.5 - 11.0) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 14 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.1-0.15; tm=4-10; tmax=34; Fec=1 million).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .