Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Pagrus: Greek, pagros = a fish, Dentex, sp. (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range ? - 200 m (Ref. 3688), usually ? - 150 m. Tropical; 16°N - 17°S, 19°W - 12°E
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3688); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3688); max. published weight: 5.6 kg (Ref. 4699)
Adults Inhabit hard (rock and rubble), sandy or muddy bottoms on the continental shelf and the upper slope to about 200 m depth, but not often descending beyond 150 m. The young found nearer to the coast than the adults. Feed on mollusks and fish (Ref. 3688). Important foodfish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.9 - 17.9, mean 16.4 °C (based on 17 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00620 - 0.02676), b=3.03 (2.87 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 94 [48, 180] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.41, 2.93] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.7, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.371 [0.156, 0.903] g/100g ; Selenium = 56.7 [25.0, 127.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 44.4 [12.5, 144.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.08 [0.55, 2.28] mg/100g (wet weight);