Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Pagrus: Greek, pagros = a fish, Dentex, sp. (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 170 m (Ref. 4781), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 44°N - 16°S, 17°W - 35°E (Ref. 54696)
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Angola, including the southwestern Mediterranean, Madeira, and the Canary Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4781); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 4699)
Adults Inhabit hard bottoms (rock or rubble); the young occur near the coast. Feed mainly on mollusks including cephalopods, and also on crustaceans (Ref. 3688). Important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.3 - 27.5, mean 19 °C (based on 382 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01020 - 0.04691), b=2.95 (2.77 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 40.3 [21.6, 87.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.02 [0.40, 2.57] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [18.3, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.234 [0.129, 0.429] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.2 [11.1, 53.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.4 [4.4, 64.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.579 [0.298, 1.256] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.