Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Stomiidae
(Barbeled dragonfishes) > Astronesthinae
Etymology: Astronesthes: Greek, astra = ray + Greek, esthes, -es = suit, something used to wrap (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - ? m (Ref. 5951). Deep-water; 43°N - 36°S
Atlantic Ocean: through most of the Atlantic, from about 43°N to 36°S, but absent in the west from 5°N to 20°S. Elsewhere, Indian Ocean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4465)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 12 - 16. Black in color, pale luminous patches on middle of snout and along front of upper jaw (Ref. 3982). Pale luminous patches develop with growth on shoulder and on lower sides between pectoral and pelvic fins below dorsal (Ref. 3982). Body moderately elongate and slender, maxillary teeth comblike. Serial photophores are not broken into small groups (Ref. 37039).
An oceanic and mesopelagic species usually found deeper than 500 m during the day. Feeds on midwater fishes and crustaceans. Most common species taken in surface nets at night (Ref. 2802).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gibbs, R.H. Jr., 1990. Astronesthidae. p. 300-307. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4465)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.2 - 20.6, mean 14.2 °C (based on 612 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00147 - 0.01027), b=3.10 (2.87 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .