Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Blenniiformes
(Blennies) > Dactyloscopidae
Etymology: Dactyloscopus: Greek, daktylos = finger + Greek, skopein = to look (Ref. 45335); boehlkei: Named after James E. Böhlke, Curator of Fishes (ANSP), in recognition of his contributions to our knowledge of Atlantic dactyloscopids.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 8 m (Ref. 27742), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Central Atlantic: known only from the Bahamas. Also in Cuba and the Lesser Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27742)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 32 - 33. Common amongst Dactyloscopidae: Small, elongate fishes. Head usually broad and deep, body tapering and compressed behind. Eyes on top of head, often protrusible; mouth moderate to large, oblique to vertical; upper and/or lower lips with fimbriae; jaw teeth minute, in 2 or more series; no teeth on roof of mouth (vomer and palatines). Opercular opening large, gill membrane free from isthmus; opercles membranous, large, usually overlapping on underside of head, typically fringed above with 2 to 24 fleshy fimbriae. Dorsal fin continuous, with an isolated or semi-isolated anterior finlet, or with 1 to 5 separate anterior rays; dorsal-fin spines 7 to 23; anal-fin spines 2; dorsal and anal fins free or united to caudal fin by fragile membranes; pectoral fins broad-based, usually enlarged in mature males; caudal-fin rays simple or branched; pelvic fins under throat (insertion anterior to pectoral-fin base), with 1 spine and 3 thickened segmented rays; all other rays simple. Head and venter naked, body elsewhere with large cycloid scales (smooth to touch); lateral line high anteriorly, deflecting ventrally behind pectoral fin to continue along middle of side to caudal-fin base where terminal lateral-line scale bears ventrally directed canal. Body coloration, variably pale to strongly pigmented with white, brown, or reddish; some forms with characteristic saddle-like bars crossing back; others plain, mottled, or with indications of lateral stripes. Species distinguished by: dorsal-fin spines usually 10; total dorsal-fin elements 39 to 41 (usually 40); dorsal-fin origin on nape; without a distinct anterior finlet. Segmented anal-fin rays 32 or 33. First preopercular canal branched, with 2 or more distal pores. Posterior naris (a single pore) located on anterior rim of preorbital, adjacent to base of tubiform anterior naris; premaxillary pedicels reach well past rear margins of orbits. Expanded eyestalk not exceptionally long and slender (Ref.52855).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Dawson, C.E., 1982. Atlantic sand stargazers (Pisces: Dactyloscopidae), with description of one new genus and seven new species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 32(1):14-85. (Ref. 27742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27 - 28.3, mean 27.8 °C (based on 341 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .