Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Pomadasys: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, dasys = with hair (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - 100 m (Ref. 6946). Subtropical; 47°N - 14°S, 27°W - 14°E
Eastern Atlantic: Strait of Gibraltar to Angola (Ref. 6946, 57395), including islands. Reported once from France (Ref. 4517), and from Italy (Ref. 95687).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 104752); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6946); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 52657)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 11 - 13;
Vertebrae: 27. Diagnosis: body oblong; snout short, about equal to eye diameter; mouth small, maxilla not reaching anterior edge of eye; 2 anterior pores on chin, followed by a median pit; third anal fin spine equal or longer than second; 11-13 anal soft rays; caudal fin forked; scales slightly ctenoid; 7-8 scale rows between lateral line and middle of spinous dorsal-fin base (Ref. 57395).
Coloration: back dark brown, silvery white on belly; sometimes large dark spots on back and flanks, but never small spots or bands; a black spot at upper angle of opercle (Ref. 57395).
Found over hard bottom (Ref. 2683, 57395) and sand (Ref. 57395). Enters estuaries and lagoons at sexual maturation (Ref. 57395). Feeds on bottom and near-bottom invertebrates (Ref. 5535).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Roux, C., 1990. Haemulidae. p. 783-788. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6946)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.3 - 27.9, mean 23.1 °C (based on 118 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00732 - 0.01720), b=2.90 (2.78 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Tmax=7; K=0.22).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 99.2 [47.7, 197.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.37 [0.75, 2.59] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.4, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.715 [0.318, 1.539] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.2 [13.6, 72.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.1 [5.7, 45.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.935 [0.555, 1.554] mg/100g (wet weight);