Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Macrouridae
(Grenadiers or rattails)
Etymology: Malacocephalus: Greek, malakos = soft + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; non-migratory; depth range 140 - 1945 m (Ref. 2683), usually 300 - 500 m (Ref. 1371). Deep-water; 43°N - 37°S, 98°W - 13°E (Ref. 1371)
Atlantic Ocean: in tropical and warm-temperate waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
spines: 0. Snout short, narrow, weakly pointed. Chin barbel relatively long, about equal in length to eye diameter. Space between first and second dorsal fins wide. Overall color blackish, upper lateral and leading edge of snout, orbital rims, lower margin of suborbital, lips and gular membrane black.
Inhabits warm to temperate waters on the continental slope (Ref. 2683). Feeds on pelagic crustaceans (Ref. 27637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.5 - 16.6, mean 11.4 °C (based on 142 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00098 (0.00055 - 0.00175), b=3.28 (3.13 - 3.43), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .