Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Scarus: Greek, skaros = a fish described by anciente writers as a parrot fish; 1601 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Kner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 25 m (Ref. 9710), usually 2 - 15 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S
Pacific Ocean: Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean (Ref. 30874), then from the Philippines to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
soft rays: 9. Males distinct and head looks bright yellow underwater; females drab with white teeth and some pale spots (Ref. 48636). Scales large. 4 median predorsal scales; a transverse pair of smaller scales which overlap medially in mid-dorsal line located directly anterior to 1st median scale; 3 scale rows on cheek, lower row with 1-2 (usually 2) scales. Caudal fin slightly rounded to truncate in initial phase; moderately to deeply emarginate in terminal phase. Adults in initial phase without canines on upper plate, 1 on lower; terminal-phase fish with 1-2 canines on upper and lower plates. Lips largely or entirely cover dental plates.
Inhabits coral-rich areas of outer lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Usually solitary (Ref. 9710). Females usually in small groups with a male nearby; they may mix with females of similar species (Ref. 48636). An uncommon fish patchily distributed through much of its range.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2066 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00461 - 0.02857), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 57.9 [34.1, 102.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.869 [0.535, 1.349] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.2, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.0673 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.4 [11.0, 36.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24.3 [7.2, 85.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.69 [1.84, 3.86] mg/100g (wet weight);