Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Citharidae
(Citharids) > Citharinae
Etymology: Citharus: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 300 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; - 23°S
Eastern Atlantic: off northwestern Africa south to 23°S; also in the Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 107756); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Adults inhabit soft bottoms from the coastline to about 300 m depth, but rarely caught at depths greater than 200 m (Ref. 9537). They feed on small fish and crustaceans (Ref. 231).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., 1990. Citharidae. p. 1025. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6500)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.8 - 19.5, mean 15.2 °C (based on 256 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00468 - 0.00741), b=3.07 (3.00 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.26-0.30).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 103 [50, 231] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.08 [0.62, 1.78] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.8, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.291 [0.155, 0.531] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.3 [16.9, 69.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.7 [4.6, 46.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.755 [0.514, 1.065] mg/100g (wet weight);