Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Sphaeramia: Greek, sphaira = ball + Greek, amia = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 31°N - 27°S, 32°E - 173°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Kiribati, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia; Belau to eastern Caroline and Mariana Islands in Micronesia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4329); common length : 8.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
Restricted to coastal waters, forming small aggregations among mangroves, rocks, debris, or piers of shallow sheltered shorelines. Feeds at night (early evening and just before day break), primarily on planktonic crustaceans. Courtship and spawning occur fortnightly (shortly before new moons and full moons). Eggs are incubated by the male for about 8 days. Larval phase pelagic. Sexual maturity is attained at 7 cm by males and at 6 cm by females (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Courtship and spawning occur on a semi-lunar cycle, shortly before full and new moons (Ref. 37816). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205). Are mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Males incubate up to 12,000 eggs for a period of about 8 days (Ref. 37816). After the pelagic larval phase, juveniles settle and grow at a rate of 3 to 6 mm per month (Ref. 37816).
Gon, O., 1986. Apogonidae. p. 546-561. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4329)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2452 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01251 - 0.04007), b=3.06 (2.91 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 139 [80, 254] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.887 [0.564, 1.612] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.0, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.163 [0.095, 0.278] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.4 [12.7, 51.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 69.4 [21.8, 224.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.5 [1.0, 2.3] mg/100g (wet weight);