Junior synonym Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque, 1810 is considered valid in CofF ver. January 2018 following Tortonese et al., 1973 (Ref. 6518) and other authors. Its synonymy under the current species will be removed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 30 - 130 m (Ref. 7349). Subtropical; 47°N - 28°N, 19°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal, Morocco, and Canary Islands including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6518); 21.0 cm SL (female); common length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Adults are found in the neritic zone, commonly over Posidonia beds and on sand or muddy bottoms (Ref. 6518). They are distributed at depths of 30m to 90m (Ref. 56124). Feed on zooplankton. Are protogynous hermaphrodites.
Sex reversal occurs at lengths over 10.9 cm TL in the northeastern Mediterranean (Ref. 93202). Also Ref. 103751.
Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13 - 18.1, mean 14.5 °C (based on 87 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.01006 - 0.01195), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.4 (2.3 - 6.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 11 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24; tmax=5).
Prior r = 1.01, 95% CL = 0.66 - 1.51, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .