Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 172 m (Ref. 114018), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 54°N - 30°N, 118°E - 118°W
Northwest Pacific: inland Sea of Japan to Kyushu, Japan. Northeast Pacific: From southern California to the western Aleutian Islands (Ref. 114018), Alaska (Ref. 11366).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
soft rays: 28 - 32;
Vertebrae: 62 - 67. Characterized by having a horizontal skin fold along its ventral contour, and the absence of pelvic fin and teeth. Lateral plicae 160 to 180. Lower jaw pointed. Lateral line system on head not continuous with that on the body.
Found in sand bottoms and may enter semi-enclosed sea areas (Ref. 11230). Forms large schools. Important food fish in Japan (marketed fresh or dried) and marketed fresh but mainly used for meal and oil manufacture in Europe (Ref. 10384). Common size taken from picture in Ref. 559. Maximum size estimated as 1.5 * common size. Two genetically different lineages were found in Japan Sea/East Sea, perhaps representing two different species (J.K. Kim, oral.comm, FishBoL2012, June 2012).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.9 - 23, mean 19.1 °C (based on 74 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00524 - 0.01907), b=3.23 (3.06 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.6).
Prior r = 0.79, 95% CL = 0.52 - 1.18, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 77.9 [37.6, 149.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.463 [0.269, 0.821] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.6, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.495 [0.270, 0.921] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.3 [7.4, 35.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.6 [6.9, 71.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.768 [0.519, 1.118] mg/100g (wet weight);