Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 28016), usually ? - 60 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 27°N - 37°S, 29°E - 152°E
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea (Ref. 12541) south to the southeastern coast of South Africa and east to New Caledonia and Vanuatu. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Due to a widespread confusion with Sphyraena putnamae and Sphyraena qenie, the exact range is uncertain.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2871); common length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 11.5 kg (Ref. 40637)
Found near prominent current-swept lagoon or seaward reefs (Ref. 9710); also in bays, estuaries and turbid inner lagoons (Ref. 9768). Diurnal and solitary, although the young form schools. Feeds mainly on fishes but also takes squid. Sold fresh, frozen or dried salted. Reports of ciguatera poisoning need confirmation.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
De Sylva, D.P. and F. Williams, 1986. Sphyraenidae. p. 721-726. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5491)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 28.5, mean 27.3 °C (based on 442 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00631 - 0.00871), b=2.93 (2.89 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 11.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .