Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 10 - ? m. Tropical; 29°N - 22°S, 36°E - 170°E
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea, Socotra to the west coast of India, Sri Lanka and extending to the east coast of India, Bangladesh, Andamans, Malaysia, China, the Marianas and Guam, the Philippines, and Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Mostly found in marine waters, but enters estuaries and backwaters. Feed on small algae, diatoms, and other organic matter, both living and detrital, taken in with sand and mud. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Spawning takes place at sea. Also caught with stakenets. Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, J.M., 1984. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 2830)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.6 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 938 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00826 - 0.02530), b=2.93 (2.79 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100).