Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Evermann & Kendall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 190 m (Ref. 26268), usually 10 - 60 m (Ref. 26268). Temperate; 20°S - 45°S, 63°W - 39°W (Ref. 26268)
Southwest Atlantic: southeastern Brazil to about El Rincon, central Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26268)
soft rays: 92 - 97. No lateral line on ocular side. Light brownish on ocular side, with 9 to 10 indistinct dark bands; posterior parts of dorsal and fin membranes blackish; no black blotch on dorsal and anal fins and opercle (Ref. 27363).
Occurs in coastal areas (Ref. 36453). Mainly feeds on polychaetes; also on other benthic preys such as gammaridean amphipods, cumaceans, and mysids. A "smell and touch" kind of predator, little is known regarding its ecology (Ref. 26268).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.3 - 21.1, mean 15.6 °C (based on 224 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00252 - 0.00792), b=3.18 (3.02 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .