Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal. Tropical
South America: Essequibo River basin and other coastal drainages east to mouth of Amazon River, possibly in lower Amazon and lower Orinoco River basins. Forms inhabiting lower Amazon and lower Orinoco are tentatively identified as Doras carinatus and may represent one or more undescribed species.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37054)
soft rays: 11 - 15. Body elongated, without scales but with a range of 33-35 spiny bony plaque which runs along the length of the lateral, starting from the extreme end of the caudal fin up to the point directly below the origin of the dorsal fin. Head is pointed and laterally compressed, its width being far less than its length. Eyes are high and are situated in the posterior half of the head. Mouth is inferior, provided with a pair of maxillary barbels branching into 12 or 13 branches and 4 short mandibular barbels. Adipose fin short
Can emit sounds by moving its pectoral spines. Every basic unit of sound emitted lasts for 60-70 millisecond, with a frequency of 60-90 Hertz corresponding to the reply frequency of the muscles utilized (Ref. 35381).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sabaj, M.H. and C.J. Ferraris Jr., 2003. Doradidae (Thorny catfishes). p. 456-469. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 37054)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00356 - 0.01856), b=3.06 (2.86 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .