Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Chabanaud.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 7 - 190 m (Ref. 36453), usually 40 - 100 m (Ref. 36453). Tropical; 20°S - 45°S, 64°W - 40°W (Ref. 26268)
Southwest Atlantic: southeastern Brazil to central Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 102465)
Sexual maturity of females at approximately 7 to 8 cm. Minimum depth reported from Ref. 26268.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 5.2 - 21.2, mean 10.4 °C (based on 143 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00279 - 0.00748), b=3.21 (3.06 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).