Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Upeneus: Greek, ypene, -es = upper lip (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 20 m (Ref. 48643). Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea to Oman, Madagascar, South Africa, Eastern Mediterranean (via Suez Canal).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)
soft rays: 7. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VII,9; pectoral fins 14; gill rakers 7-8 + 18-20 = 26-27; lateral line scales 29-30; body depth at first dorsal fin origin 21-24% SL and at anus 20-22% SL; caudal-peduncle depth 9.1-10% SL; maximum head depth 18-20% SL; head depth through eye 15-16% SL; head length 26-28%SL; orbit length 6.3-7.8% SL; upper jaw length 10-11% SL; barbel length 16-18% SL; caudal-fin length 27-29% SL; anal-fin height 16-17% SL; pelvic-fin length 20-23% SL; pectoral-fin length 20-22% SL; first dorsal-fin height 20-21% SL; second dorsal-fin height 15-16% SL; 11-15 total bars on caudal fin, 4-6 reddish brown bars on upper caudal-fin lobe; 5-9 red-brown or grey bars on ventral half of lower lobe, extending to a broad brown or dark grey stripe along middle of lobe; 3-4 brownish-red or grey bars on inner, dorsal half of lower caudal-fin lobe (bar patterns usually retained on preserved fish); none or only faint indication of a mid-lateral body stripe on fresh fish; first dorsal-fin not pigmented; yellow or white barbels; body greyish or red-brown, darkened dorsally, covered with grey to reddish-brown spots reaching lateral side; dark-brown or red bar from eye vertically downwards may show on live fish; body dorsally darkened in preserved fish (Ref. 83903).
Feeds on hypobenthic invertebrates, mainly crustaceans and, to a lesser extent, polychaetes, which they detect with their barbels (Ref. 43448).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 439 p. (Ref. 11441)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.3 - 27.6, mean 25.6 (based on 548 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00686 - 0.01106), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .