Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Evermann & Seale.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 30 m (Ref. 58652), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 30°S
Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, the Philippines, and the North West Shelf, Western Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1419)
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 13. Color the same as in S. vulpinus except for the blackish spot posteriorly on the upper side of the body. Caudal peduncle only slightly incised. Spines stout, pungent, and venomous. Preopercular angle 109°-119°. Variable cheek squamation; usually covered with scales, 7-10 rows deep below center of orbit, occasionally a few scattered scales present below eye; a triangular area from lower edge of orbit to angle of mouth always fully scaled. Fully scaled midline of thorax.
Inhabits rich coral areas of lagoons and outer reefs, often among staghorn corals (Ref. 90102). Small juveniles occur in schools of up to a few hundred fish, larger juveniles and adults occur in pairs. Feeds on seaweeds (Ref. 9813).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1226 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00704 - 0.03738), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 55.7 [25.2, 138.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.752 [0.344, 1.691] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.7, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.149 [0.077, 0.294] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.9 [6.3, 39.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 31.9 [10.2, 105.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.33 [0.60, 2.88] mg/100g (wet weight);