Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - ? m (Ref. 48637), usually 1 - 20 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 23°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 35°N - 25°S, 77°E - 154°E
Indo-West Pacific: southern India, Sri Lanka, Andaman Islands, Thailand, southern and eastern coasts of China, Taiwan, Ryukyu, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Northern Territory in Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9813)
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 13. A brown band running diagonally from nape to chin; another from 4th-5th dorsal spine base to pectoral fin base; ocular and shoulder bands spotted with blue; a zone of silvery yellow posterior and adjacent to the shoulder band. Preopercular angle 100°-111°; cheek scalation variable from few to almost fully scaled; midline of thorax fully scaled, sometimes with a row missing from pelvic ridges. A prominent rim or short tube encircle the anterior nostril, with a little peak on it posteriorly. Spines stout, fairly pungent and venomous.
Inhabits shallow coastal waters, around hard coral reefs and areas of sand with patches of rock and soft coral. Tolerant of murky waters. Larger juveniles and adults occur in pairs in coastal reef flats, slopes and estuaries . Small juveniles are found in mangroves and enter freshwater, moving to reefs usually in small groups among corals (Ref. 48637). Feed on benthic seaweeds (Ref. 9813).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.4 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1192 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01036 - 0.03504), b=3.13 (2.97 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.31 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 57.1 [21.3, 145.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.904 [0.350, 2.194] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.278 [0.115, 0.689] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.7 [4.9, 50.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.2 [7.7, 125.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.56 [0.68, 3.67] mg/100g (wet weight);