Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Fowler & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 12 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S
Western Pacific: southern Ryukyu Islands, Palau (Belau), Philippines, northern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, northern Queensland and reefs off northwestern Western Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9813)
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 13. Head and body dark chocolate brown with purplish hue; iris pale rose-brown, white spotted. Spines stout, pungent, venomous. Preopercular angle 93°-109°. Cheeks completely scaled. Midline of thorax scaled; a row of scales absent along pelvic ridges. Anterior nostril with low rim; expanded posteriorly into a broad flap, reaching halfway to posterior nostril.
Inhabits lagoon and channel reefs (Ref. 9710), usually near steep slopes and harbours (Ref. 48637). Usually seen in pairs. Feeds on benthic seaweeds (Ref. 9813).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 166 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00713 - 0.03687), b=3.06 (2.87 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.2 [15.3, 83.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.691 [0.318, 1.453] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.6, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.123 [0.064, 0.240] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.4 [7.5, 44.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.4 [5.0, 71.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.26 [0.56, 2.74] mg/100g (wet weight);