Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Europe: endemic to Italy: Tyrrhenian Sea basin, between rivers at Genova and Sele drainage; Adriatic basin, from Essino to Ofanto drainages. Introduced in other drainages in Italy.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31730); max. published weight: 4.0 kg (Ref. 31730); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 59043)
(total): 8. Diagnosed from its congeners in Apennine Peninsula by the possession of the following characters: lateral line with 47-62 scales; back plain, sides with conspicuous dark spots; paired fins with spots; peritoneum grey; last simple dorsal ray feebly spinous, finely serrated posteriorly in small individuals; ray weak and serrae tend to disappear in individuals over about 15-20 cm SL; lower lip with a median swollen pad; and scales with free posterior part rounded (Ref. 59043).
Occurs in water courses on low-lying plains (Ref. 26100). Inhabits piedmont rivers and lakes. Prefers fast running water, but also occurs in moderate flowing waters of warm rivers and lakes. Feeds mainly on aquatic plants and invertebrates. Spawns in shallow water, over sand or gravel bottom (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00347 - 0.01318), b=3.02 (2.85 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=9; tm=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .