Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 5292), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 45°N - 32°N, 32°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to northern Morocco, including Azores and Madeira and also throughout the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 4742)
Adults are found mainly in eel-grass beds. Often in pairs. Males nest-makers. Feed mainly on mollusks, gastropods, bivalves, tubicolous worms, chitons, sea urchins and bryozoans (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Males build dish shaped nests and guard the eggs (Ref. 205).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.2 - 21, mean 18.5 °C (based on 106 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00740 - 0.01176), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.47-0.63; tm=2-3; tmax=8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 170 [85, 346] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.65 [0.95, 2.92] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [15.9, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.4 [0.2, 0.7] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.6 [14.7, 54.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14 [5, 48] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.25 [0.83, 2.39] mg/100g (wet weight);