Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Umbrina: Latin, umbra, -ae = shadow, in the sense of phantom; due to its quick movements (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 300 m (Ref. 4780), usually 150 - 200 m (Ref. 26999). Subtropical; 50°N - 28°S
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to South Africa (Ref. 4373), including the western Mediterranean. Western Indian Ocean: east coast of Africa (Ref. 3490); probably also in the Arabian Sea under synonyms capensis (non Pappe ?), sinuata Day and striata Boulenger.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593)
Found in mud and sandy bottoms of the shelf and upper slope (Ref. 4780), 14° to 15° C (Ref. 36731). Feed on small shrimps, worms and other bottom invertebrates (Ref. 4780). Sold fresh and dried salted (Ref. 3490).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11.9 - 19.7, mean 15 °C (based on 71 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00537 - 0.01412), b=3.15 (3.01 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.26).
Prior r = 0.55, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64 [32, 121] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.63, 1.76] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [18.9, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.314 [0.193, 0.469] g/100g ; Selenium = 42.3 [22.6, 76.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.77 [2.44, 21.75] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.709 [0.492, 1.099] mg/100g (wet weight);