Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Forsskål & Niebuhr.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 50672). Subtropical; 32°N - 36°S, 25°E - 58°E
Western Indian Ocean: several localities in East Africa, and from the Red Sea to the eastern Mediterranean via the Suez Canal.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 50671); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 23. Upper body gray, green or brownish, silvery below; iris iridescent silver or golden. Body color patterns extend to the fins. Spines slender, pungent and venomous. Preopercular angle 88°-96°; cheeks scaled; midline of thorax, isthmus and midline of belly without scales. Frightened fish become mottled or with 6 diagonal zones across side. Tip of broad-based flap of anterior nostril reaching at least halfway to orifice of posterior nostril.
Inhabits shallow waters and generally in schools of 50 to several hundred individuals; prefers protected areas. Feeds by grazing on algae.
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.2, mean 27.3 °C (based on 573 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01024 - 0.01548), b=2.97 (2.92 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22, tm=1-2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 28.2 [10.0, 80.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.16 [0.45, 2.97] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.1, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.417 [0.164, 1.109] g/100g ; Selenium = 7.6 [2.3, 22.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 43.5 [8.5, 213.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.59 [0.64, 3.68] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.