Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 49 m (Ref. 86942). Subtropical; 32°N - 26°S, 32°E - 160°W
Indo-West Pacific: temperate and tropical waters from India to northern Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan and Japan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3283)
(total): 8 - 10;
soft rays: 17 - 19. Color generally silvery with greenish tinge above. Pectoral fins long and pointed. Similar to D. longimana but differs in having 4 - 11 vertical gray spots on the upper half of the sides, and generally 8 dorsal spines (against none (spots) and generally 9 spines in D. longimana).
Occurs in various inshore habitats: sand or mud bottoms, reefs, estuaries and harbors (Ref. 9800). Found near coral and rock reefs at temperatures ranging from 26° to 29°C. Feeds on invertebrates and benthic fishes (Ref. 5213). Generally marketed fresh (Ref. 5284).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maugé, L.A., 1984. Drepanidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7338)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 896 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.01017 - 0.03257), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.19-0.68).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .