Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Pseudupeneus: Greek, pseudes = false + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 300 m (Ref. 4845), usually 20 - 75 m (Ref. 27000). Tropical; 35°N - 17°S
Eastern Atlantic: Agadir, Morocco to Angola (Ref. 7313). Reported from Palamós, Catalan Sea, northwestern Mediterranean (Ref. 45077).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4845); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4845)
Inhabits the coastal waters of the continental shelf, over sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 2683). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 4845).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.1 - 27.9, mean 25.2 °C (based on 104 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00643 - 0.01784), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5; tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .