Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 74511). Deep-water
Indian and Pacific: widespread in the tropical and subtropical waters. South China Sea (Ref.74511).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4066)
soft rays: 17 - 21. Anal organs 12; mature males with large, single, black-edged supracaudal gland, about 3/4 or more of the supracaudal space; mature females with 2 infracaudal glands; has a larger supracaudal gland than any other species of the genus (Ref. 39633).
Oceanic and mesopelagic. Nyctoepipelagic at the surface (Ref. 4066). Neustonic at 0-150 m at night, 500-700 m during day (Ref. 58302). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 31442).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1986. Myctophidae. p. 282-321. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4066)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.3 - 21.2, mean 14.2 °C (based on 767 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00217 - 0.01392), b=3.09 (2.86 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.28 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .