Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Ostraciidae
Etymology: Acanthostracion: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, ostrakon = shell (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 80 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 41°N - 34°S, 84°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA and Bermuda to Brazil, including the Caribbean and Antilles. Occurs in the Gulf of Mexico, off Florida, 25° 16'N, 83° 37'W (Ref.78464).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36453); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 152.40 g (Ref. 118626)
Bold pattern of hexagons outlined by narrow dark lines; centers and areas between hexagons pale (Ref. 26938). Purplish blue on sides and ventrally (Ref. 13442).
Occurs in clear water around coral reefs. Feeds on sponges, alcyonarians, tunicates, and shrimp. Uncommon and wary (Ref. 9710). Consumed fresh, generally roasted (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., B.B. Collette and B.E. Luckhurst, 1999. Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 4. 424 p. (Ref. 35505)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.4 - 28, mean 25.9 °C (based on 318 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02818 (0.01677 - 0.04736), b=2.83 (2.68 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.6 [13.6, 84.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.661 [0.395, 1.326] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [15.9, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.0951 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.9 [18.7, 88.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.4 [4.8, 76.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.21 [0.75, 1.97] mg/100g (wet weight);