Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Stephanolepis: Greek, stephanos = crown + Greek, lepis = scale (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 293 m (Ref. 5951). Subtropical; 46°N - 37°S, 98°W - 14°E
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada south along the U.S., Bermuda, the Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and along South America to Uruguay (Ref. 114078). Eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands, Morocco to Angola (Ref. 109259) including Madeira (Ref. 3592).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124459); max. published weight: 364.20 g (Ref. 124459)
Found on sand or mud bottoms. Associated with Sargassum (Ref. 26340). Adults feed on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5377). Edible but generally rejected by fishers (Ref. 5377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Monacanthidae. p. 1061-1066. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.2 - 27, mean 21.1 °C (based on 480 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.01505 - 0.02199), b=2.90 (2.84 - 2.96), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.37;).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 36.4 [12.4, 91.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.01 [0.53, 2.16] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.155 [0.068, 0.325] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.3 [6.9, 38.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.6 [6.3, 107.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.05 [0.57, 1.83] mg/100g (wet weight);