Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Ginsburg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 324 m (Ref. 26268), usually 5 - 40 m (Ref. 26268). Subtropical; 35°N - 15°N, 94°W - 65°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA through the Gulf of Mexico to the Campeche Bank region off the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Single record from Cuba.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26268)
Inhabits bays and shallow coastal waters.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 28, mean 24.9 °C (based on 280 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00507 - 0.02372), b=3.10 (2.90 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .