Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae
(Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Hippoglossoides: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek, glossa = tongue + Suffix oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 3000 m (Ref. 58426), usually 90 - 250 m (Ref. 6263). Temperate; 77°N - 41°N, 72°W - 55°E
Eastern Atlantic: off eastern Greenland and from the English Channel to the coast of Murmansk. Western Atlantic: southern Labrador in Canada and western Greenland to Rhode Island in USA (Ref. 7251). Two subspecies were recognized, H. p. platessoides from northwestern Atlantic, and H. p. limandoides from the northeastern Atlantic (Ref. 51668).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 35.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 82.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 58426); max. published weight: 6.4 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 6263)
Slender body and a large mouth. Dorsal fin starts above left eye. Lateral line almost straight. Rough scales (Ref. 35388).
Adults are most abundant from 90 m to 250 m deep and bottom temperatures of -0.5 to 2.5°C (Ref. 6263). Live on soft bottoms (Ref. 9988, 58426). Feed on invertebrates and small fishes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51486). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.6 - 10.3, mean 5.6 °C (based on 824 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00348 - 0.00867), b=3.10 (2.97 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 13.1 (8.8 - 14.5) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 12 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (rm=0.43; K=0.06-0.12; tm=2-11; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .