Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cyclopsettidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 108738), usually 0 - 18 m (Ref. 7251). Subtropical; 37°N - 15°N
Western Atlantic: southern Chesapeake Bay south along the U.S., Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico except northwestern Cuba; in the Caribbean from southern Jamaica, and along Central and South America from Mexico to the Honduran Bay Islands, and Colombia to Brazil (Santa Catarina).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Inhabits hard sand bottom from water's edge to 18 m depth, occasionally to 90 m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.4 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 426 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00421 - 0.00991), b=3.14 (3.02 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.8 [28.7, 154.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.15 [0.57, 2.06] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.2, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.152 [0.069, 0.318] g/100g ; Selenium = 15 [6, 37] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.7 [5.1, 121.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.968 [0.558, 1.604] mg/100g (wet weight);