Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 89 - 2286 m (Ref. 50610), usually 500 - 700 m (Ref. 56456). Deep-water
North Pacific: Bering Sea to off San Diego in California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 80637); common length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56456); max. published weight: 1.7 kg (Ref. 56456); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 56456)
soft rays: 37 - 50. Dorsal fin extending about halfway along length of caudal fin; caudal narrow, slightly rounded; lower 6 rays of pectorals slightly thickened and completely exserted, the next 5 greatly to moderately exserted and longer than the rays immediately above them, no real notch in fin; pelvic fins modified to form a small adhesive disc with a thickened margin, placed far forward, below eye (Ref. 6885). Off-white to pale rose on body; ends of pectoral and edges of posterior parts of dorsal and anal, and most of the caudal, black; lining of mouth and gill cavity, and tongue black (Ref. 6885).
Found on mud bottoms (Ref. 2850). Possibly the most commonly captured liparid below 200 m; captured frequently by fishers (Ref. 26773). Known to feed on polychaete worms, small crustaceans, tiny clams and other invertebrates (Ref. 4525).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.4 - 5.2, mean 3.2 °C (based on 67 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00267 - 0.00747), b=3.25 (3.10 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .