Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 102 m (Ref. 58496). Temperate; 66°N - 32°N
North Pacific: Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea to Los Angeles County, USA, but records west of the Gulf of Alaska doubtful.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
A resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612), found in sheltered areas and common in tide pools (Ref. 2850). In areas with rough surf, it occurs in higher, more sheltered places (Ref. 2850). Can leave tide pools when aquatic conditions become inhospitable (Ref. 31184). Shows a tendency to return to its home pool if displaced (Ref. 6885). Breathes air when out of water (Ref. 31184).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Males clasp females with their pectoral fin and fertilizes the eggs as it is being deposited on a rock (Ref. 6885).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.8 - 14, mean 9.1 °C (based on 242 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00298 - 0.01684), b=3.13 (2.93 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.21; tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .