Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 380 m (Ref. 50550). Temperate
North Pacific: Sea of Japan to Point Hope, Alaska in the Chukchi Sea to Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain and southeastern Alaska.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 760.00 g (Ref. 56527)
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 10 - 13. Dorsal surface of head rough with 2 pairs of developed bony ridges; uppermost preopercular spine long and straight with some ascending processes dorsally in adults (Ref. 559). Lateral line scales large and with a rough posterior margin (Ref. 559).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.1 - 6.6, mean 2.3 °C (based on 657 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00298 - 0.01684), b=3.13 (2.93 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .