Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Hexagrammidae
(Greenlings) > Zaniolepidinae
Etymology: Zaniolepis: Greek, xenio = strange + Greek, lepis, -idos = scale; frenata: frenata meaning bridled, referring to the body and fin coloring (Ref. 4525). More on authors: Eigenmann & Eigenmann.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 4 - 450 m (Ref. 96339), usually 55 - 244 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical
Eastern Pacific: southern Oregon, USA to central Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Mostly found on mud bottom from 55-244 m depth. Polychaete worms appear to be the preferred food, but euphausiids, amphipods, and fish eggs have been found in their stomachs (Ref. 4525).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.1 - 16.7, mean 10.8 (based on 36 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7502 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00150 - 0.01008), b=3.15 (2.92 - 3.38), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 4.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .