Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 90 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 38°N - 27°N, 123°W - 114°W
Eastern Central Pacific: San Francisco in California, USA to central Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Occur in rocky areas, usually in crevices (Ref. 2850). Territorial (Ref. 2850). Viviparous (Ref. 34817).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.6 - 19.4, mean 15.1 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00468 - 0.01948), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 66.2 [24.1, 201.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.818 [0.394, 1.990] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.3, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.766 [0.342, 1.872] g/100g ; Selenium = 79.7 [25.6, 234.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32 [12, 93] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.529 [0.304, 0.993] mg/100g (wet weight);