Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 18 m (Ref. 26938), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 19°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and Bahamas to Panama and northern South America. Antilles, western and southern Caribbean (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits coral reefs. Sometimes drifts above hard substratum or near ceilings of caves or ledges. Secretive but common (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.2 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 667 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00609 - 0.02604), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 114 [57, 310] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.761 [0.406, 1.348] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.2, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.236 [0.107, 0.636] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.7 [14.2, 67.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 159 [57, 438] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.63 [1.07, 2.41] mg/100g (wet weight);