Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 46 - 275 m (Ref. 7365). Subtropical; 37°N - 7°N
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 5. Occipital pit present; two spines on a part of preorbital overlapping maxilla; supplemental preopercular spine present; no dark spot on inner basal part of pectoral fin; eye large, 1.5-2.2 times of snout length; pectoral fin long reaching end of anal fin in adults (Ref. 13608).
Inhabits offshore waters. Found on soft bottom.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18 - 26.3, mean 22.7 °C (based on 69 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00623 - 0.02788), b=3.02 (2.85 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .